Amino acid analyses are performed using a standard protocol from Curtis et. al., 2016.

  1. Amino acid analyses for potatoes: Long square potato chips are freeze-dried for five days. The freeze-dried samples are milled to a fine powder with a food processing blender for 30 seconds. For each analysis, 0.1000 gr (±0.0005) of fine flour is weighed. The samples are extracted in 10 ml of 0.01 N HCl acid, mixed for 15 minutes, rested for 15 min and centrifuged for 15 min. A 1.5ml sample is removed and stored at -20 °C prior to derivatisation using a Phenomenex ® Amino acid Kit.

 

Wheat, Rye and oat grain analyses: Samples are milled to a fine powder with a food processing blender for 30 seconds. For each analysis, 0.5000 gr (±0005) of fine flour is weighed. The samples are extracted in 10 ml of 0.01 N HCl acid, mixed for 15 minutes, rested for 15 min and centrifuged for 15 min. A 1.5ml sample is removed and stored at -20 °C prior to derivatisation using a Phenomenex ® Amino acid Kit. Samples are analysed by GC-MS.

High quality testing for Sugar analyses

  1. Reducing sugar analyses, precursors for acrylamide formation include fructose, glucose, sucrose and maltose.
  2. Sample preparation:

Long square potato chips are freeze-dried for five days. Freeze-dried samples are milled to a fine powder with a food processing blender for 30 seconds. For each analysis, 0.1000 gr (±0.0005) of fine flour is weighed. The samples are extracted in 10 ml of 1:1 water: methanol containing 100mg/L trehalose (as an internal standard). The samples are mixed for 15 minutes, rested for 15 min and centrifuged for 15 min. Samples are diluted 1:10 and passed through a 0.2 mm filter. A 1.5ml sample is removed and stored at -20°C.  Samples are either directly analysed by IC or further diluted 1:10 in acetonitrile and analysed by LC-MS.

  1. Structure analysis of arabinoxylan and mixed-linkage glucan in cereal flour
    Sample preparation: Cereal grains were milled into flour. Endogenous hydrolytic enzymes were inactivated by boiling the flour in ethanol. Simple sugars were removed by further ethanol washes. Mixture of recombinant hydrolytic enzymes (xylanase and lichenase) was used to hydrolyse arabinoxylan and mixed-linkage glucan into corresponding oligosaccharides and these were then analysed by HPAEC.
  2. Quantification of water extractable and water un-extractable hemicelluloses in plant matrices (monosaccharides analysis)
    Sample preparation: Water extractable and water un-extractable fractions were prepared from cereal flour. Alternatively, alcohol insoluble residue (AIR) was prepared from other plant matrices. If necessary, fractions were destarched using starch degrading enzymes. Extracts were hydrolysed with trifluoracetic acid (TFA) and analysed by HPAEC for neutral (fucose, rhamnose, arabinose, galactose, glucose, xylose, mannose) and acidic (galacturonic and glucuronic acids) sugars.

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Acrylamide and precursors: Amino acid anlayses (asparagine analyses) and reducing sugars analyses

 

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